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Longitudinal Examination of Victimization Experiences of Latinos (LEVEL): Extending the Bias Victimization Study

NCJ Number
Carlos A. Cuevas, Ph.D.; Amy Farrell, Ph.D.; Jack McDevitt, Ph.D. ; Sheldon Zhang, Ph.D.; Jeff Temple, Ph.D.; Chiara Sabina, Ph.D.; Sarah Lockwood, M.S.; Jesenia Robles, B.A.
Date Published
March 2021
32 pages

This study fills gaps in knowledge about victimization among Latinx populations with various immigration statuses, English language proficiency, and levels of acculturation/enculturation.


In addition, this study provides one of the few longitudinal examinations of victimization of Latinx adults, which is important to know during a time of heightened concern about victimization, help-seeking, and victimization reporting among Latinx. Study participants were derived from the existing sample of the study entitled “Understanding and Measuring Bias Victimization Against Latinos.” This sample consisted of residents from three areas of the United States; i.e., the greater San Diego metro area, Southern Texas (Galveston and Houston) and metro-Boston. These areas contained Latinx populations from various countries of origin, as well as immigration experiences. In addition to consenting to a second survey, participants were asked whether they would be willing to participate in an in-depth, in-person interview. The qualitative findings indicated various significant themes that pertained to their victimization experiences and their identity as Latinx persons. Interviewed participants commonly described having negative encounters due to their identity as Latinx individuals, as well as because of their language. An inability to speak English was perceived as contributing to their victimization. Another trend within the discrimination code was the relationship to work. Many participants perceived bias-motivated comments at their place of employment. Fear of victimization due to their Latinx identity impacted the ways participants engaged in social and economic interactions, including how they viewed law enforcement personnel and whether they would report to police perceived identity-based victimizations. One of the most notable quantitative results was the significant increase in past-year victimization across the two waves of data, which trended toward an increase in perceived bias victimization. 5 tables, 1 figure, and 26 references